Occupation Studies

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Maastricht University

Resources

Recent books and articles by Network members, listed by year of publication.

If you are a Network member and would like your latest books or other publications listed here, please send the details by email to the Network convenors. If you wish, you can add a short (max. 100 word) description.

 

Published in 2022

 

Books

David Baillargeon and Jeremy E. Taylor (eds), Spatial Histories of Occupation: Colonialism, Conquest and Foreign Control in Asia (Bloomsbury, 2022). Open access.

 

Journal articles and chapters in edited collections

Sandra Khor Manickam, ‘Andō’s Ambiguities in Malaya: The life of a Japanese medical doctor between British and Japanese empires’, East Asian Science, Technology and Society: An International Journal (EASTS), published online (July 2022). Open access.

David Serfass, ‘Collaboration and State-making in China: Defining the Occupation State (1937–1945)’, Twentieth Century China, 47:1, (2022), 71-80.

David Serfass, ‘Mapping China under Japanese Occupation: Spatial Configurations of State Power during Wartime (1937–1945)’, in David Baillargeon and Jeremy E. Taylor (eds), Spatial Histories of Occupation: Colonialism, Conquest and Foreign Control in Asia (Bloomsbury, 2022), 119-142. Open access.

 

Published in 2021

 

Books

Peter Howson, Britain and the German Churches, 1945-1950: The Role of the Religious Affairs Branch in the British Zone (Boydell Press, 2021).

This is a link to a blog post I wrote for the publisher about my new book: Britain and the German Churches, 1945-1950 – Boydell and Brewer

Laure Humbert, Reinventing French Aid: The Politics of Humanitarian Relief in French-Occupied Germany, 1945-1952 (Cambridge University Press, 2021)

My most recent work examines the everyday encounters between French officials, members of new international organizations, relief workers, defeated Germans and Displaced Persons, who remained in the territory of the French occupation zone in the aftermath of the Second World War.

Sophie de Schaepdrijver and Tammy Proctor, An English Governess in the Great War: The Secret Brussels Diary of Mary Thorp (Oxford University Press, 2017). Paperback edition 2021.

An exhaustively annotated edition of a long-anonymous document identified by Tammy Proctor and myself: the WWI diary of the Englishwoman Mary Thorp (1864-1945), a governess in a wealthy Russian-Belgian family in German-occupied Brussels. Like Thorp, who was in between classes and in between nations, the diary straddles worlds: that of Thorp’s affluent employers and that of her charity cases; that of freely traveling diplomats and confined ordinary civilians. In referring to Thorp’s nephew, held as an enemy alien at Ruhleben camp (Germany), the diary documents two enclosed war spaces – an occupied city and a prison camp.

 

Key themes: Rules; Social Interaction

Keywords: Britain; Brussels; London; Russia; Committee for the Relief of Belgium; diplomacy; egodocuments; charity; food aid; censorship; domestic service; incarceration of enemy civilians

Jeremy E. Taylor. (ed.), Visual Histories of Occupation: A Transcultural Dialogue (Bloomsbury Academic, 2021).

Jeremy E. Taylor, Iconographies of Occupation: Visual Cultures in Wang Jingwei’s China, 1939-1945 (University of Hawaii Press, 2021).

Ismee Tames & Maartje Abbenhuis,  Global War, Global Catastrophe: Neutrals, Belligerents and the Transformations of the First World War (Bloomsbury, 2021).

Tatjana Tönsmeyer and Peter Haslinger (eds), Fighting Hunger, Dealing with Shortage: Everyday Life Under Occupation in World War II Europe: A Source Edition (Brill, 2021).

Keywords: World War II, Occupied Territories, German Occupation, Sources, Hunger, Prevention, Food Supply, Europe

Franziska Zaugg, Rekrutierungen für die Waffen-SS in Südosteuropa: Ideen, Ideale und Realitäten einer Vielvölkerarmee (Recruiting for the Waffen-SS in Southeast Europe: Ideas, Ideals, and Realities of a Multinational Army) (De Gruyter, 2021)

This is my newest publication on the recruitment of all four Southeast European Waffen-SS divisions. The book deals with occupation and recruitment strategies as well as motivation factors and constraints on the macro-, meso- and micro levels in six countries. What advantages do people hope for when they collaborate with an occupying regime? What kinds of threats do they face if they do not? These questions can be applied to Waffen-SS recruitment during World War II and refracted as if through a prism. This study explains the intentions and scope of action of the occupational forces, political elites, and individuals.

 

Journal articles and chapters in edited collections

Marco Maria Aterrano, ‘A Problematic Involvement: Free France, the Advisory Council, and the Allied Occupation of Italy, 1943–44’, The International History Review, 43:4 (2021), 720-735.

Marco Maria Aterrano, ‘Civilian Disarmament. Public Order and the Restoration of State Authority in Italy’s Postwar Transition, 1944-1946’, Journal of Contemporary History, 56:2 (2021), 386-410.

Fabio De Ninno, ‘Italian civilian victims of war: assistance, legislation and war pensions from fascism to republic’, Journal of Modern Italian Studies, 26:3, (2021), 291-313.

Maria Fritsche, ‘Alkohol und (Besatzungs-)Macht‘, in Dorothee Wierling (ed.), “Wenn die Norskes uns schon nicht lieben …” Das Tagebuch des Dienststellenleiters Heinrich Christen in Norwegen 1941-1943. (Wallstein 2021), 229-250.

Key themes: Social interactions

Katharina Gerund, ‘Re-education and the Construction of Whiteness in the US Military’, Comparativ, 31:1, (2021), 52-65.

Charlie Hall, ‘“A Completely Open Race”: Anglo–Soviet Competition over German Military Science and Technology, 1944–1949’, War in History, 28:2 (2021), 430-449.

Jean Hillier and Shulan Fu, ‘An Uncanny Architecture of Cultural Heritage: the Japanese Occupation of Harbin, China’, in Taylor J. (ed.), Visual Histories of Occupation: Towards an Interdisciplinary and Transnational Dialogue (Bloomsbury, 2021), 207-228. Open access.

Adam R. Seipp, ‘The View from Benjamin-Franklin Strasse: Politics, Society, and Conversion in Western Germany, 1989-1995’, in Eleni Braat and Pepijn Corduwener (eds.) 1989 and the West: Western Europe since the End of the Cold War (Routledge, 2021), 27-45.

Margot Tudor, ‘Gatekeepers to Decolonisation: Recentring the UN Peacekeepers on the Frontline of West Papua’s Re-colonisation, 1962–3‘, Journal of Contemporary History, (2021), 1-24.

Margot Tudor, ‘Reputation on the (green) line: revisiting the ‘Plaza moment’ in United Nations peacekeeping practice, 1964–1966‘, Journal of Global History, Vol. 16:2 (2021), 227 – 245.

 

Published in 2020

 

Books

Christoph Brüll, Christian Henrich-Franke, Claudia Hiepel & Guido Thiemeyer (eds.), Belgisch-deutsche Kontakträume in Rheinland und Westfalen, 1945–1995 (Nomos 2020)

Camilo Erlichman and Christopher Knowles (eds) Transforming Occupation in the Western Zones of Germany (Bloomsbury Academic, 2018). Paperback edition February 2020.

Robert Gildea & Ismee Tames, Fighters across Frontiers: Transnational Resistance in Europe, 1936-48 (Manchester University Press, 2020).

Charlie Hall, British Exploitation of German Science and Technology, 1943-1949 (Routledge, 2020)

Caroline Mezger, Forging Germans: Youth, Nation, and the National Socialist Mobilization of Ethnic Germans in Yugoslavia (1918-1944), (Oxford University Press, 2020).

Key themes: government, social interactions, memories

Keywords: National Socialism, Southeastern Europe, youth

Benedikt Neuwöhner, Georg Mölich & Maike Schmidt, Die Besatzung des Rheinlandes 1918 bis 1930: Alliierte Herrschaft und Alltagsbeziehungen nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg (Verlag für Regionalgeschichte, 2020).

Key themes: Government, Social Interactions

Nico Wouters and Laurence Van Ypersele (eds), Nations, identities and the First World War,  London (Bloomsbury, 2018). Paperback edition 2020.

Key themes: Legacies; Keywords: Nationalism, Collective Memories

 

Journal articles and chapters in edited collections

Marco Maria Aterrano, ‘A New Deal for Italy. Rethinking Britain’s Punitive Attitude and the Making of the Allied Policy in Occupied Italy, 1944’, in Marco Maria Aterrano and Karine Varley (eds), A Fascist Decade of War: 1935-1945 in International Perspective (Routledge, 2020), 57-68.

Maria Fritsche, ‘Spaces of Encounter: Relations between the occupier and the occupied in Norway during the Second World War’, Social History, 45/3 (2020), 360-383.

Key themes: Social interactions

Charlie Hall, ‘“The Other End of a Trajectory”: Operation Backfire and the German Origins of Britain’s Ballistic Missile Programme’, The International History Review, 42:6 (2020), 1118-1136

Samantha Knapton, ‘”There is no such thing as an Unrepatriable Pole”: Polish Displaced Persons in the British Zone of Occupation in Germany”, European History Quarterly, 50 (4) (2020).

My article in European History Quarterly analyses the deteriorating relationship between officials in British-occupied Germany and Polish Displaced Person. Using the issue of repatriation as a focal point, it emphasises the interactions within the British zone and their most populous DP group within the context of carrying out occupation on ex-enemy land.

Ethan Mark, ‘Fascisms Seen and Unseen: The Netherlands, Japan, Indonesia, and the Relationalities of Imperial Crisis’. in: Adeney Thomas J. Eley G. (eds.) Visualizing Fascism: The Twentieth-Century Rise of the Global Right (Duke University Press, 2020), 183-210.

Jeremy E. Taylor and Zhiyi Yang, ‘Towards a New History of Elite Cultural Expression in Japanese-Occupied China’, European Journal of East Asian Studies, 19:2 (2020), 189-207.

 

Published in 2019

 

Books

Gaëlle Fisher & Caroline Mezger (eds), ‘The Holocaust in the Borderlands: Interethnic Relations and the Dynamics of Violence in Occupied Eastern Europe’, European Holocaust Studies, Vol. 2 (Wallstein, 2019).

Key themes: social interactions, legacies, memories

Keywords: Holocaust, interethnic violence, borderlands

David Philips, Educating the Germans: People and Policy in the British Zone of Germany, 1945-1949 (Bloomsbury Academic, 2018). Paperback edition 2019.

 

Journal articles and chapters in edited collections

Marco Maria Aterrano, ‘Prelude to Casablanca. British Operational Planning for Italy and the Origins of the Allied Invasion of Sicily, 1940-1941’, War in History, 26:4 (2019), 495-516.

Charlie Hall, ‘Pushed into Pragmatism: British Approaches to Science in Post-War Occupied Germany’, The International History Review, 41:3 (2019), 559-580

David Philips, ‘Dodds and Educational Policy for a Defeated Germany’, in Rediscovering E.R. Dodds: Scholarship, Education, Poetry, and the Paranormal, ed. Christopher Stray, Christopher Pelling & Stephen Harrison (Oxford University Press, 2019).

Adam R. Seipp, ‘“This Land Remains German”: Requisitioning, Society, and the US Army, 1945–1956’, Central European History, 53:3 (2019), 276-295.

 Adam R. Seipp, ‘“We Have to Pay the Price”: German Workers and the US Army, 1945–1989’, War in History, 26:4, (2019), 563-584.

Julia Wambach, ‘Vichy in Baden-Baden: The personnel of the French occupation in Germany after 1945’, Contemporary European History, 28:3 (2019), 319–341.

Nico Wouters, ‘The Second World War in Belgium: 75 years of history (1944-2019)’, Journal of Belgian History, 2:3 (2019), 12-81. Open access.

Key themes: Memories; Keywords: Historiography, Public History, Representation

 

Published in 2018

 

Books

James E. Connolly, The Experience of Occupation in the Nord, 1914-1918: Living with the Enemy in First World War France (Manchester University Press, 2018). Accessible for free via Open Access:

This study considers the ways in which locals of the occupied Nord responded to and understood their situation across four years of German domination, focusing in particular on key behaviours adopted by locals, and the way in which such conduct was perceived. Behaviours examined include forms of complicity, misconduct, disunity, criminality, and resistance. This local case study calls into question overly-patriotic readings of this experience, and suggests a new conceptual vocabulary to help understand certain civilian behaviours under military occupation.

Key themes: Social Interactions, Memories

Keywords: Collaboration, Resistance, Criminality

James Connolly, Emmanuel Debruyne, Elise Julien, and Matthias Meirlaen (eds), En territoire ennemi: Expériences d’occupation, transferts, héritages (1914-1949) (Presses Universitaires du Septentrion, 2018).

This collective volume, based on two conferences, provides a wide-ranging analysis of military occupations and ways in which experiences were transferred across space and time.  Areas studied include occupied northern France and Belgium in the First World War; the Eastern Front, Belgium, and Europe more generally in the Second World War; Austria and Hungary from the nineteenth century until the Second World War, and occupied Germany after 1945.

Key themes: Social Interactions, Memories, Legacies, Government

Key words: Transfers, World Wars, Experiences

Emmanuel Debruyne, ‘Femmes à Boches’: Occupation du corps féminin, dans la France et la Belgique de la Grande Guerre (Les Belles Lettres, 2018)

Brian Drohan, Brutality in an Age of Human Rights: Activism and Counterinsurgency at the End of the British Empire (Cornell University Press, 2018)

Thomas French (ed.), The Economic and Business History of Occupied Japan: New Perspectives (Routledge, 2018).

Christine Haynes, Our Friends the Enemies: The Occupation of France after Napoleon (Harvard University Press, 2018).

Christopher Knowles, Winning the Peace: The British in Occupied Germany, 1945-1948 (Bloomsbury Academic, 2017). Paperback edition 2018.

Marco Longobardo, The Use of Armed Force in Occupied Territory (Cambridge University Press, 2018).

Ethan Mark, Japan’s Occupation of Java in the Second World War:  A Transnational History (Bloomsbury, 2018).

Sophie de Schaepdrijver, Gabrielle Petit: dood en leven van een Belgische spionne tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog (Horizon, 2018). Expanded and revised translation into Dutch of the monograph first published in English: Gabrielle Petit: The Death and Life of a Female Spy in the First World War (Bloomsbury Academic, 2015).

This is a biography and a study of memory. Gabrielle Petit (1893-1916), a working-class woman living in German-occupied Brussels, was a secret agent for British intelligence in northern France and Belgium. She was caught, condemned to death by a German military court, and shot in April 1916. The book traces Petit’s life, ambition, war service, and the reasons why she was singled out for execution. The book then analyzes the exhumation of Petit’s memory after the Armistice, its apotheosis in 1919-1921, and its long afterlife. Throughout, the book discusses the vernacular sources that document obscure lives. The Dutch-language book was awarded the Henriette de Beaufort Biography Prize of the Society for Dutch Literature, 2019.

Key themes: Government; Rules; Social Interaction; Memories; Legacies

Keywords: Espionage; Resistance; Working-Class Life; Cities under Occupation; Vernacular Memory; Monuments; Legacy

Tatjana Tönsmeyer, Peter Haslinger & Agnes Laba (eds), Coping with Hunger and Shortage under German Occupation in World War II (Palgrave Macmillan, 2018).

Keywords: World War II, Occupied Societies, German Occupation, Occupied Territories, Food, Hunger, Shortages, Medicine, Everyday Life, Rationing Systems, Strategies of Survival, Malnutrition.

 

Journal articles and chapters in edited collections

Thomas French, ‘Fiats and Jeeps: The Occupation, Jeeps, and the Postwar Automotive Industry’, in Thomas French (ed.), The Economic and Business History of Occupied Japan: New Perspectives (Routledge, 2018).

Sophie de Schaepdrijver, ‘Measuring lost time: civilian diaries under military occupation’, in Richard Bessel and Dorothee Wierling (eds), Inside World War One? The First World War and its Witnesses (Oxford University Press, 2018), 57-81.

This article analyzes a set of diaries written by middle-class Belgian women and men under German occupation. It interprets diary-keeping as an attempt to endure the “lost time” and the uncertainty of life as an occupied civilian, and traces the failure or relative success of this ever-renewed attempt across diaries and diarists. It concludes that high expectations of patriotic unity predisposed diarists to disillusionment, whereas more pragmatic and observant diarists were more resilient.

Key themes: Social Interaction

Keywords: Egodocuments; Endurance; War Culture

Sophie de Schaepdrijver, ‘No country for young men: patriotism and its paradoxes in German-occupied Belgium, 1914-1918’, in Richard Butterwick-Pawlikowski, Quincy Cloet and Alex Dowdall (eds), Breaking Empires, Making Nations: The First World War and the Reforging of Europe (The College of Europe at Natolin, 2018), 124-153. (Also available in Russian, translated from English by Anna Kadnikova, in Konstantin A. Tarasov (ed.), Kul’tury patriotizma v gody Pervoi mirovoi voiny: sbornik statei (Izdatel’stvo Evropeiskogo universiteta v Sankt-Peterburge, 2020).

This article studies patriotic culture in German-occupied Belgium: an underground, vehement campaign, mainly waged in the clandestine press, to uphold belief in liberation and to ostracize fellow citizens deemed unworthy. One theme is the situation of young civilian men, a sizeable percentage of the occupied population since most military-age Belgian men were not mobilized (in contrast to other occupied territories in World War One). Young men under occupation faced opprobrium from patriots and repression or cooption by the occupation regime. The article traces their attempts to find a symbolic space of their own.

Key themes: Rules; Social Interaction; Legacy

Keywords: Youth; Masculinity; Military Service; Ambition; the Clandestine Press; Resistance; Collaboration; Modernist Culture

Adam R. Seipp & Andrea A Sinn, ‘Landscapes of the Uprooted: Displacement in Postwar Europe’, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 33:1, (2018), 1-7.

 

Published in 2017

 

Books

Marco Aterrano, Mediterranean-First? La pianificazione strategica anglo-americana e le origini dell’occupazione alleata in Italia (1939-1943) (Federico II University Press, 2017). Open access.

David Philips, Investigating Education in Germany; Historical Studies from a British Perspective (Routledge, 2017).

 

Journal articles and chapters in edited collections

David Philips, ‘Writing the History of Education in the British Zone of Germany, 1945-1949: A Note on Sources and Challenges’, RCIE, Vol.12 No.2, (2017).

Nico Wouters, ‘Belgium’, in David Stahel and Lisa Lines (eds), Joining Hitler’s Crusade: European Nations and the Invasion of the Soviet Union (Cambridge University Press, 2017), 260-287.

Key themes: Social Interactions; Keywords: Eastern Front (WWII), National Socialism, Collaboration (WWII)

 

Some earlier publications, listed alphabetically by author

 

Susan Carruthers, The Good Occupation: American Soldiers and the Hazards of Peace (Harvard University Press, 2016).

James E. Connolly, ‘Sandbags, Strikes and Scandals: Public Disorder and Problematic Policing in Occupied Roubaix during the First World War,’ Historical Reflections/Réflexions Historiques, 42:3 (Winter 2016), 9-28.

Key themes: Social Interactions, Government

James E. Connolly, ‘Notable Protests: Respectable Resistance in Occupied Northern France, 1914-1918,’ Historical Research, 88:242 (Nov. 2015), 693-715.

Key themes: Social Interactions, Government

James E. Connolly, ‘Mauvaise Conduite: Complicity and Respectability in the Occupied Nord, 1914-1918,’ First World War Studies, 4:1 (March 2013), pp. 7-21. Republished as a chapter in Sophie de Schaepdrijver (ed.), Military Occupations in First World War Europe (London: Routledge, 2014).

Key themes: Social Interactions

Thomas French, ‘Using Geospatial Data to Study the Origins of Japan’s Post-Occupation Maritime Boundaries’, Asia Pacific Perspectives, 13:1 (2015), 28-56.

Thomas French, ‘Contested ‘Rearmament’: The National Police Reserve and Japan’s Cold War(s)’, Japanese Studies, 34:1 (2014), 25-36.

Thomas French, National Police Reserve: The Origin of Japan’s Self Defense Forces (Global Oriental, 2014).

Neve Gordon and Sharon Pardo, ‘The European Union and Israel’s Occupation: Using Technical Customs Rules as Instruments of Foreign Policy’, The Middle East Journal, Vol. 69, Winter 2015, 74-90.

Neve Gordon, Israel’s Occupation (University of California Press, 2008).

Neve Gordon, ‘From Colonization to Separation: Exploring the Structure of Israel’s Occupation’, Third World Quarterly, 29:1 (2008), 25-44.

Neve Gordon, ‘Of Dowries and Brides: A Structural Analysis of Israel’s Occupation’, New Political Science, 29:4 (2007), 453-478.

Yoshimi Yoshiaki & Ethan Mark, Grassroots Fascism: The War Experience of the Japanese People (Columbia University Press, 2015).

David Philips, ‘Aspects of Education for Democratic Citizenship in Post-War Germany’, Oxford Review of Education, Vol.38, No.5, (2012).

David Philips, ‘Helena Deneke and the Women of Germany.  A Note on Post-War Reconstruction‘, German Life and Letters, Vol.53 No.1, (2003).

David Philips, ‘Reconstructing Education in Germany: Some Similarities and Contrasts in the Post-War and Post-Unification Rethinking in Educational Provision’, in Leslie J. Limage (ed.), Democratizing Education and Educating Democratic Citizens: International and Historical Perspectives (Routledge 2001).

Adam R. Seipp, Strangers in the Wild Place: Refugees, Americans, and a German Town, 1945-1952 (Indiana University Press, 2013).

Peter Stirk, A History of Military Occupation from 1792 to 1914 (Edinburgh University Press, 2016). Paperback edition, 2017.

Peter Stirk, ‘The Concept of Military Occupation in the era of the French revolution and Napoleonic Wars’, Comparative Legal History, 3:1 (2015), 60-84.

Peter Stirk, The Politics of Military Occupation (Edinburgh University Press, 2009). Paperback edition 2012.

Jeremy E. Taylor, ‘Gendered Archetypes of Wartime Occupation: ‘New Women’ in Occupied North China, 1937-40’, Gender & History, 28:3 (2016), 660-686.

Tatjana Tönsmeyer, Besatzungsgesellschaften. Begriffliche und konzeptionelle Überlegungen zur Erfahrungsgeschichte des Alltags unter deutscher Besatzung im Zweiten Weltkrieg, Version 1.0, in Docupedia-Zeitgeschichte, 2015. Available online.

Keywords: Occupation, Occupied Society, Terminology, Methodology

Tatjana Tönsmeyer, ‘Besatzung als europäische Erfahrungs- und Gesellschaftsgeschichte: Der Holocaust im Kontext des Zweiten Weltkrieges‘, in Frank Bajohr and Andrea Löw (eds), Der Holocaust. Ergebnisse und neue Fragen der Forschung (Verlag S, Fischer, 2015), 281-298.

Keywords: Occupation, Occupied Societies, European History, World War II, Holocaust, Everyday Life, Occupation Experience.

Tatjana Tönsmeyer, Hungerökonomien. Vom Umgang mit der Mangelversorgung im besetzten Europa des Zweiten Weltkrieges, Historische Zeitschrift, 301:3 (2015), 662–704.

Keywords: World War II, Rationing, Famines, Food Shortages, German Occupation, Starvation, Rationing Systems, Black Market, Barter Trade.

Nico Wouters, Mayoral Collaboration under Nazi Occupation: Belgium, the Netherlands and the North of France (1938-1946) (Palgrave McMillan, 2016).

Key themes: Government; Keywords: Local Government, Comparative History, Collaboration (WWII)

Nico Wouters and Veerle Vanden Daelen, ‘“The Lesser Evil” of Jewish Collaboration? The Absence of a Jewish Honor Court in Postwar Belgium’, in Laura Jockusch and Gabriel N. Finder (eds), Jewish Honor Courts. Revenge, Retribution, and Reconciliation in Europe and Israel after the Holocaust (Wayne State University Press, 2015), 197-224.

Key themes: Legacies; Keywords: Holocaust, Transitional Justice, Retribution (WWII)

Rebecca Zahn, ‘German codetermination without nationalization, and British nationalization without codetermination: retelling the story’, Historical Studies in Industrial Relations, 36:1 (2015), 1-27

Key themes: Rules